By Beth Roy
While 4 ny urban law enforcement officials killed Amadou Diallo in 1999, the 41 photographs they fired echoed loudly around the state. In loss of life, Diallo joined an extended checklist of younger males of colour killed by means of police fireplace in towns and cities all throughout the United States. via innuendos of criminal activity, lots of those sufferers might be discredited and, by way of implication, held liable for their very own deaths. yet Diallo used to be an blameless, a tender West African immigrant doing not anything extra suspicious than returning domestic to his Bronx house after operating tough all day within the urban. Protesters took to the streets, effectively not easy that the 4 white officials be dropped at trial. whilst the officials have been acquitted, notwithstanding, horrified onlookers of all races and ethnicities despaired of justice. In forty-one pictures . . . and Counting, Beth Roy deals an oral historical past of Diallo's loss of life. via interviews with individuals of the neighborhood, with cops and legal professionals, with executive officers and moms of younger males in jeopardy, the ebook strains the political and racial dynamics that put the officials outdoors Diallo's condo that evening, their arms on symbolic in addition to genuine triggers. With lucid research, Roy explores occasions within the court, in urban corridor, within the streets, and within the police precinct, revealing the interlacing clash dynamics. forty-one photographs . . . and Counting permits the reader to think about the consequences of the Diallo case for our nationwide discourses on politics, race, type, crime, and social justice.
Read or Download 41 Shots . . . and Counting: What Amadou Diallo's Story Teaches Us About Policing, Race, and Justice (Syracuse Studies on Peace and Conflict Resolution) PDF
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Additional resources for 41 Shots . . . and Counting: What Amadou Diallo's Story Teaches Us About Policing, Race, and Justice (Syracuse Studies on Peace and Conflict Resolution)
What followed was a straightforward discussion of what those charges mean and how to think about assessing them. To prove murder in the second degree, the prosecution must show, beyond a reasonable doubt, that the defendants shot Diallo, that they intended to cause his death, and that they did cause his death. After parsing each of those aspects in legal idiom, which is to say, stating the obvious from many different angles and in the process making problematic that which initially seemed beyond question, Judge Teresi turned to the heart of the matter—justification: If you have determined that the People have established all of the elements of the crime of Murder in the Second Degree in the first count, then you must turn to consider the defense known in law as justification Defining the Question: In the Courtroom 23 but which is commonly referred to as self-defense.
For each of the three charges, and for each of the three lesser-included charges, the Judge delineated the terms for decision, and each time he listed the three grounds for considering whether the defendants’ actions were justified. Again and again and again, the formal, somber words lapped against the consciousness of the jurors. Emotional as the young officers’ testimony had been, dramatic as John Patten’s enactment of Diallo’s behavior at the critical moment, so also the repetitive recitation of carefully parsed ground on which the jury might decide innocence had, I imagine, rhetorical impact, rendering what might have been a debatable rendition of law indisputable.
Working as a vendor offers a certain amount of control over the conditions of employment, but it is also quite literally unrooted in the structure of American society. Vendors move as necessary from one place to another. They are licensed by a special city agency, but otherwise in the course of the day have only fleeting interactions with customers, perhaps more consistent interaction with each other. Residing in the Bronx, commuting to the City, returning home late at night to a shabby apartment shared with two other young men from his homeland, his immigration status in question, Diallo’s life was a hard one, even aside from the problems of racism described by African American men like David.
41 Shots . . . and Counting: What Amadou Diallo's Story Teaches Us About Policing, Race, and Justice (Syracuse Studies on Peace and Conflict Resolution) by Beth Roy